Simulation of Piano Sustain-pedal Effect by Parallel Second-order Filters

Simulation of Piano Sustain-pedal Effect by Parallel Second-order Filters
Stefano Zambon (1), Heidi-Maria Lehtonen (2), and Balázs Bank (1)
(1) Dept. of Computer Science, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
(2) Dept. of Signal Processing and Acoustics, Helsinki University of Technology, TKK, Espoo, Finland
This paper presents a sustain-pedal effect simulation algorithm for piano synthesis, by using parallel second-order filters. A robust two-step filter design procedure, based on frequency-zooming ARMA modeling and least squares fit, is applied to calibrate the algorithm from impulse responses of the soundboard and the string register. The model takes into account the differences in coupling between the various strings. The algorithm can be applied to both sample-based and physics-based piano synthesizers.
The manuscript has been accepted for publication in the International Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-08).
Sound samples
    Knocking Sounds

    In the following, real and synthetic sustain pedal impulse responses are presented. The impulse response of a Steinway grand piano Model C was obtained by hitting the bridge with an impulse hammer. Resynthesized version is computed by convolving the recorded impulse hammer force with the impulse response of the designed parallel bank of resonators.

  • Recorded impulse response
  • Resynthesized impulse response

  • Recorded Test Tones with Synthetic and Real Sustain Pedal

    Three recorded example tones (C2, C4, and C6) are played first without the sustain pedal, then with the synthetic sustain pedal, and finally with real sustain pedal:

    [ (1) no sustain pedal --- (2) synthetic sustain pedal --- (3) real sustain pedal ]

  • C2
  • C4
  • C6

  • Synthetic Test Tones

    Synthetic tones (C2, C4, and C6), which were generated with a physics-based model, are processed with the proposed sustain-pedal algorithm. First the tone without the sustain pedal is played, and then the same tone is played with the sustain pedal:

    [ (1) synthetic tone without sustain pedal --- (2) synthetic tone with sustain pedal ]

  • C2
  • C4
  • C6

  • Arpeggio Example

    A synthetic C major chord is played in arpeggio style with the synthetic sustain pedal.

  • C major arpeggio
Author: Heidi-Maria Lehtonen
Modified: June 16, 2008 by Heidi-Maria Lehtonen